Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Type 2 is the most common form of Diabetes. The diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus depends on certain criteria. Classic symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus are: polyuria- excessive urination, polydipsia- excessive thirst, and polyphagia- excessive appetite. Also, weight loss and random plasma glucose at >200mg/dL with fasting plasma glucose at >126 mg/dL.

Are you at risk for Pre-diabetes, aka Metabolic Syndrome or Syndrome X? Is your fasting blood glucose between 100-126?

Type 2 Diabetes Statistics

According to the latest available information from the American Diabetes Association© (2007):

There are a total of 23.6 million diabetic children and adults in the United States—7.8% of the population has diabetes. 17.9 million people are diagnosed. 5.7 million people are not diagnosed yet and 57 million people are pre-diabetic! There are 1.6 million new cases of diabetes diagnosed in people aged 20 years and older each year.

Total prevalence of diabetes

Under 20 years of age

  • 186,300, or 0.22% of all people in this age group have diabetes
  • About 1 in every 400 to 600 children and adolescents has type 1 diabetes
  • About 2 million adolescents aged 12-19 have pre-diabetes

Age 20 years or older

  • 23.5 million, or 10.7% of all people in this age group have diabetes

Age 60 years or older

  • 12.2 million, or 23.1% of all people in this age group have diabetes

Men

  • 12.0 million, or 11.2% of all men aged 20 years or older have diabetes

Women

  • 11.5 million, or 10.2% of all women aged 20 years or older have diabetes

Race and ethnic differences in prevalence of diagnosed diabetes

After adjusting for population age differences, 2004-2006 national survey data for people diagnosed with diabetes, aged 20 years or older include the following prevalence by race/ethnicity:

  • 6.6% of non-Hispanic whites
  • 7.5% of Asian Americans
  • 11.8% of non-Hispanic blacks
  • 10.4% of Hispanics

Among Hispanics rates were:

  • 8.2% for Cubans
  • 11.9% for Mexican Americans
  • 12.6% for Puerto Ricans.


Morbidity and Mortality

Deaths

Diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death listed on U.S. death certificates in 2006. This ranking is based on the 72,507 death certificates in 2006 in which diabetes was listed as the underlying cause of death. According to death certificate reports, diabetes contributed to a total of 233,619 deaths in 2005, the latest year for which data on contributing causes of death are available.

Complications

Heart disease and stroke

  • In 2004, heart disease was noted on 68% of diabetes-related death certificates among people aged 65 years or older.
  • In 2004, stroke was noted on 16% of diabetes-related death certificates among people aged 65 years or older.
  • Adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates about 2 to 4 times higher than adults without diabetes.
  • The risk for stroke is 2 to 4 times higher among people with diabetes.

High blood pressure

  • In 2003–2004, 75% of adults with self-reported diabetes had blood pressure greater than or equal to 130/80 mmHg, or used prescription medications for hypertension.

Blindness

  • Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20–74 years.
  • Diabetic retinopathy causes 12,000 to 24,000 new cases of blindness each year.

Kidney disease

  • Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney
    failure, accounting for 44% of new cases in

  • In 2005, 46,739 people with diabetes began
    treatment for end-stage kidney disease in the
    United States and Puerto Rico.

  • In 2005, a total of 178,689 people with
    end-stage kidney disease due to diabetes were
    living on chronic dialysis or with a kidney
    transplant in the United States and Puerto
    Rico.

Nervous system disease (Neuropathy)

  • About 60% to 70% of people with diabetes have mild to severe forms of nervous system damage.

Last but not least, of those 60-70% most have sexual dysfunction.

Amputation

  • More than 60% of non-traumatic lower-limb amputations occur in people with diabetes.
  • In 2004, about 71,000 non-traumatic lower-limb amputations were performed in people with diabetes.


Cost of Diabetes
$174 billion: Total costs of diagnosed diabetes in the United States in 2007

  • $116 billion for direct medical costs
  • $58 billion for indirect costs (disability, work loss, premature mortality)

After adjusting for population age and sex differences, average medical expenditures among people with diagnosed diabetes were 2.3 times higher than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes.
The American Diabetes Association has created a Diabetes Cost Calculator that takes the national cost of diabetes data and provides estimates at the state and congressional district level.

Factoring in the additional costs of undiagnosed diabetes, pre-diabetes, and gestational diabetes brings the total cost of diabetes in the United States in 2007 to $218 billion.

  • $18 billion for the 6.3 million people with undiagnosed diabetes
  • $25 billion for the 57 million American adults with pre-diabetes
  • $623 million for the 180,000 pregnancies where gestational diabetes is diagnosed

For Additional Information

*These statistics and additional information can be found in the National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2007, the most recent comprehensive assessment of the impact of diabetes in the United States, jointly produced by the CDC, NIH, ADA, and other organizations.

Source: American Diabetes Association©*

How Your Body Should Use Blood Sugar

  • Your cells (all 100 TRILLION) of them need glucose to make energy (ATP)
  • Insulin opens up the cells so that glucose in the blood can get into the cells
  • Cortisol from your adrenal glands elevates blood sugar when it is too low and/or abnormal cortisol levels
  • People with blood sugar issues have cells that are resistant to insulin

Here are the causes of Insulin Resistance:

  • Waiting too long between meals (insulin surge)

  • Eating too many carbohydrates at once (insulin
    surge)

  • Consuming too much sugar (insulin surge)

The average American consumes 150-170 lbs of sugar a year! About a ¼ to ½ lb per day!

  • Lack of exercise

  • High stress (cortisol release)

All of this causes…

  • Chronically high levels of glucose and insulin and your cells “stop listening” to insulin!

INSULIN RESISTANCE

Many medical providers prescribe insulin for diabetic patients. If you decide to go on insulin, do so with this thought in mind- the day you get on insulin you are not going to be the same. It ultimately will fail as doses go up and up. Your body will gradually stop listening to the insulin, so you will have to use more and more of it.

Side effects of Insulin

  • Inflammation
  • Weight Gain
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Risk of CV Disease, Cancer and Stroke
  • High Insulin= Inflammation throughout the body along with cardiovascular consequences.

What Controls Your Blood Sugar?

  1. Pancreas: insulin puts glucose into the cell for energy
  2. Adrenal Glands: cortisol elevates blood sugar when needed (physical stress, exercise, sleep)
  3. Thyroid Hormone: helps with glucose metabolism
  4. Liver: major storage site of glucose (glycogen)

All 4 have to function properly!

Another Cause… Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus
Beta blockers that increase blood sugar:

  • Metformin-
  • Brand Names: Glucophage, Fortamet,
  • Glumetza, Riomet,

This medication still neglects to get to the root cause of the problem and its effectiveness declines with time.

Blood glucose levels can be checked with 5 very important blood chemistry markers

  • Fasting Blood Glucose: this should be 80-100 for a properly functioning nervous system
  • HA1C: this is the best marker because it gives us what your blood glucose levels have been for the last 120 days; for your nervous system to function properly this number should be below 5.0
  • Triglycerides (75-100)
  • Cholesterol (150-200)
  • LDL (>120)

When your body becomes insulin resistant it will take the extra glucose in your blood and make lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL). This is why you gain fat when you are insulin resistant and until you control your blood glucose levels you will not be able to shed this fat.

The Keys…

  • Controlling insulin and cortisol levels
  • Making sure thyroid and liver fuction are proper

Neurological Consequences of Type II Diabetes

  • Decreased sensory input to ALL of brain
  • Can cause dysfunction ANYWHERE in the brain
  • Can cause focal vascular lesions in multiple brain areas

What are the 6 things that you can do to keep good blood glucose levels?

Dr. Kelsey's plan will reveal to you at least 6 things you can do for yourself right now!